BASES AND TRANSPORTS
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Comments and Questions
The following documents and publications are from:
U.S. Air Force
Los Alamos Scientific Labs (LASL)
NASA and many more.
Origins are in the documents for identification of source.
We should start with the earliest concepts of a permanent base on the Moon.
The first feasibility report was started in 1958 by the US Army.
The report was finished and submitted to the Army's Chief of Ordinance
from the Chief of Research and Development in March 1959.
The Army's plan was for just an outpost first, then future bases for
weapons launches after the problems associated with the environment
and life support on a long term basis were under control.
Remember, this was during the Cold War and control of the skies
weren't 100% achieved or could be. So control of the Moon was,
and still is, the next priority. If we had launch sites on the Moon,
we would have had control of the world at large.
But all of that is obsolete as thermonuclear war seems far from
happening, at least for now. However, control of the Moon's resources
is still a major priority, as well as the other planets in our solar system.
The plan is titled:
Project Horizon PDF (1.3Mb)
This is Volume 1 with 57 pages and is considered the summary.
I'm searching for Vol. 2. and it's very hard to acquire.
When and if I find it, I'll post it here.
Here are a few illustrations from the document.
Another plan submitted was Project Lunex (pdf) in 1961. 198 pages (7Mb)
An Air Force project that was on a wider scope. And was considered
more realistic in as much it's mission was more productive and not destructive.
There would be settlements, mining, processing sites, full logistics support,
labs and launch sites for returning products to Earth.
And there would be stations in lunar orbit for added support
and docking/launching platforms for two-way travel.
Here are several illustrations from that plan:
The SLS Family
(Space Launch System)
Credit - © Mark Wade
In the mid-1950's, US Air Force-funded studies, identified the optimum long-term solution for space launch.
The studies indicated the desirability of segmented solids for a first stage to achieve low cost, high reliability and flexibility of basic booster size by adding or subtracting segments.
Studies further showed that oxygen-hydrogen propellants, with their very high specific impulse, were a preferred choice for upper stages, where mass was more important.
This choice also resulted in minimum systems cost. By stressing the concept of a single liquid stage with a single engine, it was felt that a high reliability for the over-all system could be achieved.
Furthermore, by starting out from the very beginning with the concept that this was to be a standardized vehicle for a wide variety of space missions, it was felt that a basically good design could be achieved which would be useful for...
"…at least five, and perhaps ten years…" as a work-horse booster.
A decision to proceed with the Space Launching System in July 1961 would have resulted in first flight of the A vehicle in mid-1964, first manned launch in mid-1965, first launch of the BC super-booster in mid-1966, and the first manned landing on the moon in late 1967.
SLS Family pdf (45kb)
Notice the BC-2720 is depicted in the Project Lunex plan.
Donald C. Wade has a patent below on:
Heavy Lift Vehicle-Launched Space Station Method and Apparatus.
Here are the individual documents on each of the SLS vehicles.
Manufacturer of all vehicles: USAF
(Orbital Launch Vehicle)
Lift-Vehicle: SRB 388 aka, Phoenix
Craft atop vehicle:
A-388 pdf (45kb)
Lift-vehicle: SRB 388
Craft atop vehicle:
Air Force Lunex Lunar
Lander Re-Entry Vehicle
A-410 pdf (35Kb)
Lift-Vehicle: SRB 2720
Craft atop vehicle:
AF Lunex Lunar Lander
AB-825 pdf (36Kb)
Lift-vehicle: SRB 2720
Craft atop vehicle: AF Lunex Lunar Lander
BC-2720 pdf (45Kb)
The following documents, patents and publications are on other plans submitted from
outside industries and inside the space community.
Some were considered for implementation and some were not.
A Manned Lunar Program Options
Mission Equipment, Sept. 1967.
From BellComm Inc.
MLPO pdf (882Kb)
Erectable Modular Space Station
Submitted to NASA in 1962.
US Patent 3,169,725 (762Kb)
Inventor: Rene Berglund
Lunar Base Synthesis Study Vol II
Mission Analysis and Lunar Base Synthesis. Large pdf (52.2Mb)
North American Rockwell's
Space Division, May 1971. 355 p.
Vol I is a short summary not included here.
Lunar Base Synthesis Study
Shelter Design. Large pdf (25.6Mb)
North American Rockwell's
Space Division, May 1971 374 pages.
Lunar Studies Program
Ground Launch, Orbital Launch,
Lunar Launch. 158 pages
LSP 1965. Large pdf (67.7Mb)
Illustrations at right.
Towards Lunar Archaeology
Dr. Alexey V. Arkhipov
A scientific study of the possibility of an ancient alien
presence on the Moon. Complete with photos of suspect areas.
The ancient Khorezmian fortress Koy-Krylgan-kala appeared as
an impact crater in the air photo (left); its artificiality
is obvious after the excavations in 1956 (right).
v01n02aresspecs pdf (1.04Mb)
PDF (82.6Kb) 8 pages
Dr. Alexey Arkhipov
A Search For Alien Artifacts On The Moon
(SAAM Project) PDF (38.6Kb) 6 pages
Dr. Alexey Arkhipov
Dr. Alexey Arkhipov
PDF (108Kb) 10 pages
Various computer algorithms were proposed and tested for the archaeological reconnaissance of the Moon . About 20,000 Clementine lunar orbital HIRES images have been processed, and a few ruin-like formations were found.
Now the results of similar automated survey of all HIRES polar images (~80,000 files) are presented.
Star Booster (980Kb) pdf
Buzz Aldrin's company and concepts of the next
generation booster and lunar and space vehicles.
Space Station Facility
Aldrin's Heavy Lift Vehicles and Aquila (638Kb) pdf
Post Apollo Extension System
NASA Conference On Lunar Exploration And Science 1965
This is the program that many believe continued after the Apollo 17 mission.
First was the AES and then this program, the Post AES.
Conference On Lunar Exploration And Science pdf (15.7Mb) 420 pages.
The following are excerpts from the document:
"The AES should be followed by a program including long distance travel, up to 800 km and fixed site investigation from 2
months to 1 year. These missions should commence about 1975 and proceed at a rate of one per year through 1980.
Additional orbital flights also appear desirable during this period". (page 18)
"Lunar Flying Vehicle (LFV). The LFV is a one or two man rocket propelled craft capable of hovering and low
flying to a distance of 15 km. It could be used for extending the operational range of the AES and studying features inaccessible
to the LSSM due to topography. For this purpose it should be able to carry at least a 300 lb scientific
payload. Continued study of the LFV is recommended, since its usefulness in lunar surface operations
has not yet been demonstrated." (page 28)
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
PDF (7.23Mbs) 195 pages
The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) was the first human spaceflight mission managed jointly by two nations. It was designed to test the compatibility of rendezvous and docking systems for American and Soviet spacecraft in order to open the way for future joint human flights.
There were a number of difficulties that both nations had to resolve in the mission design before they could assure a safe docking of both spacecraft and an on-orbit meeting of crewmembers. The technical challenges included different measuring systems, the different spacecraft and thus mating adapter designs, and different air pressures and mixtures.
Note: There are two volumes of the project totaling over 1000 pages at the
Nasa Technical Reports Server. Click on the below link.
Heavy-Lift Vehicle-Launched Space Station Method and Apparatus.
United States Patent 5,441,221 pdf (744Kb) 33 pages.
Wade , et al. August 15, 1995
Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavy-lift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a Shuttle Orbiter using the launch vehicle of the Shuttle Orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are pre-integrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectable operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal)
or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.
Inventors: Wade; Donald C. (Friendswood, TX), De La Fuente; Horacio M.
(Friendswood, TX), Berka; Reginald B. (Houston, TX), Rickman; Steven
L. (League City, TX), Castro; Edgar O. (Houston, TX), Nagy;Kornel
(Houston, TX), Wesselski; Clarence J. (Alvin, TX), Pelischek; Timothy E.
(Santa Fe, TX), Schliesing; John A. (Houston, TX)
Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (Washington, DC)
Appl. No.: 08/161,038
Filed: December 3, 1993
Several drawings from the patent. More in the document.
Integrated Launch and Emergency Vehicle System.
United States Patent 5,143,327 PDF (260Kb) 14 pages.
Martin September 1, 1992
A heavy launch vehicle for placing a payload into a spatial Earth orbit including an
expendable, multi-container, propellant tank having a plurality of winged booster
propulsion modules releasable disposed about one end thereof; and a payload supported by adapter structure at the other end. The preferred payload is an entry module adapted to be docked to a space station and used as a return vehicle for the space station crew, as scheduled, or in emergency situations.
Alternately, the payload may include communication satellites, supplies, equipment and/or structural elements for the space station.
The winged propulsion modules are released from the expendable propellant tank
in pairs and return to Earth in a controlled glide, for safe landing at or near the launch site and prepared for reuse. The rocket engines for each propulsion module are dual-fuel, dual-mode engines and use methane-oxygen and hydrogen-oxygen, respectively, from the multi-containers of the propellant tank. When the propulsion modules are released from the expendable propellant tank, the rocket engines are pivotally moved into the module cargo bay for the return glide flight.
Inventors: Martin; James A. (Gloucester, VA)
Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (Washington, DC)
Appl. No.: 07/575,737
Filed: August 31, 1990
CONCEPTS FOR MANNED LUNAR HABITATS/1991
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
Manned Lunar Habitat pdf (7.64Mb) 103 pages.
The Langley Research Center did not sponsor additional work on lunar habitats until 1988 at which time the Spacecraft Analysis Branchof the Space Systems Division participated in a cooperative effort with the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to define details of systems for a JSC concept of a large, inflatable habitat. Langley provided design details for the Environmental Control and Life Support System, Thermal Control System, and an analysis of radiation hazards and effectiveness of protection provided. These efforts are documented in unpublished white papers.
Paralleling these system studies, the Spacecraft Analysis Branch sponsored a contractual effort to study the potential application of the Space Transportation System (STS) external oxygen tank asa lunar habitat. A concept for the capture and outfitting of the tank at Space Station Freedom with subsequent set-up on the lunar surface as a lunar habitat for a crew of twelve was developed (ref. 4).
Based upon these previous efforts, the JSC Planet Surface System Office requested the Langley Research Center to study alternate concepts for surface habitats and to recommend one or more habitats as candidates for more detailed study. Also to be included in the study was the identification of new technology associated with the design concepts as reviewed in Appendix B. The work effort was formally assigned the designation, WBS #: 8.4.3, “Planet Surface System.” The documentation of this work effort is the subject of this report.
Mobile Lunar and Planetary Bases pdf (4.23Mb) 2003
This review covers a range of surface mobility concepts that address the mobility issue in a variety of ways. These concepts include the Rockwell Lunar Sortie Vehicle (1971), Cintala’s Lunar Traverse caravan, 1984, First Lunar Outpost (1992), Frassanito’s Lunar Rover Base (1993), Thangavelu’s Nomad Explorer (1993), Kozlov and Shevchenko’s Mobile Lunar Base (1995), and the most recent evolution, John Mankins’ “Habot” (2000-present). The review compares the several mobile base approaches, then focuses on the Habot approach as the most germane to current and future exploration plans.
MoonLITE Mole Penetrators And Orbiting Platform.
PDF (1.32Mbs) 46 pages, 2007
MoonLITE is a U.K.-led small robotic mission (of less than 1 ton at launch) to the Moon. It comprises a polar orbiter and multiple instrumented penetrator vehicles. The penetrators would emplace a global network of three to four 13-kilogram science stations equipped with seismometers, heat sensors, and spectrometers and powered by primary batteries. Both orbiter and surface stations have a nominal 1-year life.
The MoonLITE mission would meet some of the scientific goals identified by the U.S. National Research Council and by the Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) in the U.K.; demonstrate telecommunications and some risk-reduction capabilities needed for a lunar architecture; and provide a cost-effective lunar milestone beyond NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), which is scheduled for launch in the October 2008 timeframe.
As well as the Nuclear TBM's on the Apollo 15 page, these are also available:
SUBSELENE: A NUCLEAR POWERED MELT TUNNELING CONCEPT FOR
HIGH-SPEED LUNAR SUBSURFACE TRANSPORTATION TUNNELS
Los Alamos LA-UR-86-289 pdf (453Kbs) 7 pages, 1986
The Subterrene technology that was developed at Los Alamos demonstrated many characteristics that could be turned to good advantage for excavation work on the Moon. The lunar environmental characteristics such as no atmosphere, low gravity field, lack of freewater and oxygen, and plentiful quantities of loosely consolidated soils, are all advantageous to operation of the rock melting system.
Although this next TBM has conventional mechanical cutting heads,
it is still nuclear powered and leaves a glass/ceramic lining on the tunnel walls.
PDF (2.06Mbs) 67 pages, 1988
The internal power cycle of the Lunar Tunneler, shown in Figure27, begins with a nuclear reactor which uses liquid lithium as the working medium for cooling. Lithium was chosen for its ability to remain liquid at very high temperatures and for its proven ability in heat transfer uses.
At this point, I would like to show you a very good explanation of
the lunar processes titled: Geologic Processes on the Moon (23Kb) 9 pages
by Eric Douglass and prepared for pdf by Peter Kokh from the original article.
"This paper deals with the processes that formed the features we see on the Moon. The
primary geologic processes that shaped the Moon are the formation of craters, volcanic activity,
and tectonic activity. Each of these will be dealt with in their respective sections".
At only nine pages, it thoroughly covers cratering processes, volcanism
and tectonic activity during the Moon's evolution.
The company that acquired American Rocket Corp. (AMROC)
and all it's patents on Hybrid Rocket Engines.
Here is their latest announcement on August 23, 2007.
SpaceDev to Build Lunar Lander Prototype
Contract Initiates Construction of International Lunar Observatory
POWAY, CA – August 23, 2007 -
SpaceDev (OTCBB: SPDV) announced today that it has been awarded a contract to develop a prototype lunar lander vehicle for the International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA). Since 2003, SpaceDev has performed four design and feasibility studies addressing various aspects of the ILO.
The ILO will be a spacecraft to conduct optical and radio astronomy from the surface of the Moon, and potentially engage in commercial activities involving not only astronomy, but also photography, communications, and internet hosting.
The prototype will achieve smooth landings via precision-controlled throttling of its hybrid rocket motors. "This is a landmark phase for the ILO, as we carry the project beyond paper studies and into hardware development," said Mark N. Sirangelo, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer.
"We believe that low-cost entrepreneurial endeavors will play an increasing role in space science, travel, and exploration, and we are excited to be part of that movement with our work on the ILO.
This phase will demonstrate critical technologies, and will provide a
perfect stepping stone toward further advancement of the mission."
SpaceDev Orbiting Structures,
SpaceDev Starsys Structures pdf (110Kb)
Hybrid Propulsion pdf (168Kb)
position, move, and deploy critical components on spacecraft. We have spent
20 years developing a world-class team of more than 150 engineers,
scientists, technicians, and support staff to deliver advanced spacecraft
Laser Rocket Tug
Laser Rocket Tug pdf (1Mb) U.S. Patent 3,825,211 July 1974
The laser rocket may separate from the payload periodically to replenish its propellant supply. To do this the laser rocket is decelerated to a low circular orbit to rendezvous with a propellant depot or space shuttle and then the laser rocket rejoins the payload to continue the periodic acceleration process.
In one exemplary space mission using a single 500 megawatt earth based laser station and which requires sending a 2,000,000 pound payload to Mars, according to such a technique, forty separate periapsis laser rocket "burns" can be achieved in approximately 60 days including the time required for the laser rocket "tug" to drop down to a low circular orbit for three refuelings.
The thrusting maneuvers required for each of these missions begins from a highly eccentric initial parking orbit. Typically, initial parking orbits for high energy, low mass interplanetary missions have apoapsis and periapsis distances of approximately 350,000 kilometers and 7,000 kilometers, respectively, corresponding to an eccentricity of 0.96.
The period of such orbits is 8.7 days. The laser rocket maneuvers the payload into this eccentric orbit from a lower parking orbit by the aforementioned periodic engine burns. The final thrusting injection maneuver into an escape trajectory begins when the vehicle and the payload are approaching the earth at a distance that may be as much as 50,000 kilometers from the laser generating plant.
The retro-propulsion maneuver for the laser rocket begins immediately after the payload is released and lasts from about 2 to 30 minutes depending on the escape trajectory.
Generally speaking operation of the laser rocket occurs only when it is within range of a laser station. Hence each orbit is selected so that it will periodically bring the space vehicle within range of a laser generating station. During the time that the space vehicle is within sight of the laser generating station, a beam of radiation is directed towards the vehicle and collected by it for propulsion.
Lunar Surface Mining For Automated Acquisition of Helium 3
Lunar Surface Mining pdf (1Mb)
Initial Planetary Base Construction Techniques and Machine Implementation (1.65Mbs) pdf, 45 pages
Conceptual designs of:
(a) Initial planetary base structure and
(b) An unmanned machine to perform the construction of these structures using materials local to the planet are presented. Rock melting is suggested as a possible technique to be used by the machine in fabricating roads, platforms, and interlocking bricks.
Lunar Lander Conceptual Design
The Second Conference On Lunar Bases And Space Activities Of The 21st Century
Lunar Lander Conceptual Design (Eagle Engineering 1988)
pdf (1.05Mb) 13 pages
This paper summarizes work carried out under NASA contract and documented in more detail in the Lunar Lander Conceptual Design (Eagle Engineering 1988).
One lander, which can land 25,000 kg, one way, or take a 6000-kg (6) crew capsule up and down is proposed.
The initial idea was to build a space-maintainable, single-stage, reusable lander suitable for minimizing the transportation cost to a permanent base and use it from the first manned mission on.
Taking some penalty and perhaps expending expensive vehicles early in the program would avoid building multiple types of landers.
Advanced Automation for Space Missions
What follows is a portion of the final report of a NASA summer study,
conducted in 1980 by request of newly-elected President Jimmy Carter at a cost of 11.7 million dollars.
Unfortunately, the proposal was quietly declined with barely a ripple in the press.
(Declined publicly doesn't necessarily mean rejected)
What was once conceivable with 1980's technology is now even more
practical today. Even if you're just skimming
OK, lets move on to technology that was on the board in 1955.
The propulsion system for this next craft proved to be unreliable.
However, the concept for the structural design was kept so unconventional
propulsion systems could be applied. Namely, Anti-Gravity...or Electrokinetic.
But lets look at the first:
Project: Silver Bug pdf (995Kb)
The original concept was based on the Canadian tested AVRO car or Project Y2.
This next project was most likely the propulsion system
used in the above type crafts....
Anti-Gravity or more accurately, Electro-Gravitic.
Project: Winterhaven pdf (1.12Mb) 1952-53
Theoretical considerations would predict that, because of the privilege of sustained acceleration, top limits of speed may be raised far beyond those of jet propulsion or rocket drive, with possibilities eventually of approaching the speed of light in "free space". The motor which may be forthcoming will be essentially soundless, vibrationless and heatless.
As a means of propulsion in flight, its potentialities already appear to have been demonstrated in model disc-shaped airfoils, a form to which it is ideally adapted. These model airfoils develop a linear thrust like a rocket and may be headed in any direction.
The discs contain no moving parts and do not necessarily rotate while in flight. In atmospheric air they emit a bluish-red electric coronal glow and a faint hissing sound.
Rocket-type electrogravitic reactor motors may prove to be highly efficient. Theoretically, internal resistance losses are almost negligible and speeds can be enormous. The thrust is controllable by the voltage applied, and a reversal of electric polarity may even serve as a brake (or if maintained, reverse the direction of flight).
It is the sincere hope that, in this way, a century of normal evolution in science, looking toward the ultimate control of gravitation for the benefit of mankind, may be compressed into 5 to 10 years.
Another type of propulsion system from the year 2002
(built and tested)
Electrodynamic Field Generator
Electrodynamic Field Generator pdf (507Kb) U.S. Patent 6,404,089
Website Introduction Statement:
Extraordinary new potential for our world exists in a revolutionary and patented new propulsion technology that may soon enable true interstellar travel — an all-electric reactionless space drive which is technically capable of breaking the light barrier!! And this "StarDrive device", in a somewhat simplified form, could actually be utilized now for electric power generation on a commercial scale more efficiently and economically than virtually any other method known!
Excerpt from Patent:
It is expected, that the intercooler system described will be satisfactorily effective during the operation of three-stage devices in the vacuum of space, and is principally designed with this mode of usage in mind.
Accordingly, it is believed that an Impulse Drive Unit operated in space will be able to purge its excess heat by actually circulating the primary conduit liquid sodium or equivalent through the secondary thermal conduit system (instead of the cryogenic coolant).
In this case, the intercooler structure is used to transfer heat to the Emitter Ring hull plates as a radiative heat sink. This cooling method would provide the necessary means of liberating the Generator from permanent ground-based support to achieve free-ranging operation in space.
Spaceflight, as we know it, is based on the century old rocket equation that is an embodiment of the conservation of linear momentum. Moreover, special relativity puts an upper limit on the speed of any space-vehicle in the form of the velocity of light in vacuum. Thus current physics puts severe limits on space propulsion technology.
This paper presents both recent theoretical and experimental results in the novel area of propulsion research termed gravitomagnetic field propulsion comprising the generation of artificial gravitational fields. In the past, experiments related to any kind of gravity shielding or gravito-magnetic interaction proved to be incorrect.
However, in March 2006 the European Space Agency (ESA) announced credible experimental results, reporting on the measurement of artificial gravitational fields (termed gravito-magnetic fields), generated by a rotating Niobium superconductor ring that was subjected to angular acceleration.
These experiments were performed by M. Tajmar and colleagues from ARC Seibersdorf, Austria and C. de Matos from ESA, and recently were repeated with increased accuracy.
Many good references in this pdf.
Flying Saucer Patent
Believe it or not, the inventor got a
patent for this re-entry vehicle in 1963
US Patent 3,090,580 pdf (428Kb)
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